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Criminal investigation

Author: Aric W Dutelle; Ronald F Becker
Publisher: Burlington, MA : Jones & Barlett Learning, [2019]
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Fifth editionView all editions and formats
Database: WorldCat
Summary:
From the crime scene to the courtroom, "Criminal Investigation, Fifth Edition" walks students through the entire investigative process and the roles involved, including police officers, investigators, forensic personnel, defense lawyers, and prosecutors. This integrated approach paints a realistic picture of how crimes are actually solved with fascinating real-world examples. The "Fifth Edition" incorporates modern  Read more...
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Title: Criminal investigation /
Database Name: WorldCat
All Authors / Contributors: Aric W Dutelle; Ronald F Becker
ISBN: 9781284082852; 1284082857
Notes: Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
Content: Machine generated contents note: 1.Introduction to Criminal Investigation -- What Is Criminal Investigation? -- Early History -- China, 12th Century -- England, 13th Century -- London, 1829 -- Law Enforcement Developments in England and in the United States -- London -- Chicago -- Case In Point: Tenacity -- Case In Point: Jack the Ripper -- New York City -- The Birth of Forensic Investigation -- Forensic Investigation in the United States -- The Growth of Forensic Science -- Development of Crime Laboratories -- Advancing Forensic Science -- Ripped From The Headlines: Defunding Forensic Science Improvement -- Fundamentals of Forensic Science -- Parsimony -- Specification -- Scientific Method -- Observation -- Recording -- Taxonomy -- Analysis -- Case In Point: The Scientific Method at Work -- Hypothesis -- Theory -- Inductive Reasoning -- Deductive Reasoning -- Criminal Investigation and the Scientific Method -- Importance of Forensic Evidence
Content: Note continued: Exhibit 1.1: The Fifth and Sixth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution -- Objectives of an Investigation -- Investigator's Notebook: Definition of a Successful Investigation -- Investigator's Role -- Selecting Investigators -- Ripped From The Headlines What Does It Take to Become a Police Officer? -- The Legal Team -- Exhibit 1.2: The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution -- Admissibility of Evidence -- Investigator's Notebook: Proper In-Court Admission of Evidence -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 2.The Laws of Search and Seizure -- The U.S. Constitution and Due Process -- Exhibit 2.1: The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution -- The Fourth Amendment -- Expectation of Privacy -- Ripped From The Headlines: Police Chief Says Housing Authority Is to Blame for Search Confusion -- The Fifth Amendment -- The Sixth Amendment -- Case In Point: Pennsylvania v. Muniz, 1990 -- The Exclusionary Rule -- History -- Exceptions
Content: Note continued: Case In Point: Mapp v. Ohio, 1961 -- The Inevitable Discovery Exception -- The Good Faith Exception -- Case In Point: Nix v. Williams, 1984 -- Investigator's Notebook: Warrant Procedures -- Search Warrants -- Exhibit 2.2: Search Warrant -- Warrantless Searches Based on Probable Cause -- Search Incident to Arrest -- Case In Point: Chime) v. California, 1967 -- Case In Point: United States v. Ross, 1982 -- Warrantless Searches Based on Reasonableness -- Consent Searches -- Exhibit 2.3: Example of a Consent Search Form -- Case In Point: Florida v. Enio Jimeno, 1991 -- Emergency Searches -- Exigent Circumstances Exception -- Investigator's Notebook: Requirements for Plain-View Searches -- Plain-View Searches -- Open-Field Exception -- Case In Point: Oliver v. United States, 1984 -- Vehicle Inventories -- Stop and Frisk -- Investigator's Notebook: Frisk Criteria -- Police Roadblocks and Sobriety Checkpoints -- Drug Interdiction Checkpoints -- Conclusion
Content: Note continued: Questions for Review -- Reference -- Key Legal Cases -- 3.Managing Criminal Investigations and Cultivating Sources of Information -- Managing the Criminal Investigation -- Preliminary Investigation -- Investigator's Notebook: Crucial Elements of the Preliminary Investigation -- Solvability Factors -- Crime Scene Processing During the Preliminary Investigation -- Conviction Is the Objective -- Advantages of Managing Criminal Investigations -- Incident Command System -- National Incident Management System -- The Follow-Up Investigation -- The Interview -- The Search and the Arrest -- Preparing for Trial -- Sources of Information -- Community Policing and Criminal Investigation -- Eyewitnesses and Victims -- Informants -- Informants with an Agenda -- Investigator's Notebook: Working with Witnesses and Victims -- Cultivating Informants -- Informant Reliability -- Ripped From The Headlines: Trouble with Using Police Informants in the U.S.
Content: Note continued: Case In Point: Draper v. United States, 1959 -- Case In Point: Spinelli v. United States, 1969 -- Surveillance -- Case In Point: Illinois v. Gates, 1983 -- Investigator's Notebook: Multivehicle Surveillance -- Investigator's Notebook: Essential Considerations When Planning Surveillance -- Legal Trends in Surveillance -- Ripped From The Headlines: Drone Use in Police Surveillance -- Case In Point: Katz v. United States, 1967 -- Case In Point: On Lee v. United States, 1952 -- Modus Operandi -- Case In Point: Rooftop Slaying -- Crime Mapping -- Interviewing -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 4.The Crime Scene -- Introduction to Crime Scenes -- First Response -- Exhibit 4.1: The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution -- Investigator's Notebook: Dos and Don'ts for Dealing with the Media -- Investigator's Notebook: Media Checklist -- Methodical Approach to Crime Scene Processing -- Documenting the Crime Scene
Content: Note continued: Documentation/Reports -- Taking Notes -- Use of Notes -- Investigator's Notebook: Elements of Field Notes -- Investigator's Notebook: Field Notes Best Practices -- Conducting a Preliminary Scene Survey -- Ripped From The Headlines: Civilianizing Crime Scene Duties -- Recording the Crime Scene -- Crime Scene Photography -- Photographic Ranges and Perspectives -- Overall Photographs -- Midrange/Evidence-Establishing Photographs -- Close-Up/Comparison/Examination Photographs -- Proper Use of Forensic Scales -- Photo Logs -- Order of Taking Photographs -- Guidelines for Crime Scene Photography -- Crime Scene Videography -- Guidelines for Digital Video Recording a Crime Scene -- Searching the Crime Scene -- Swath Size -- Types of Crime Scene Search Patterns -- Lane/Strip Search -- Line Search -- Grid Search -- Zone Search -- Circle/Spiral Search -- Sketching and Mapping the Scene -- Sketching -- Crime Scene Mapping -- Baseline Mapping
Content: Note continued: Rectangular Coordinate Mapping -- Triangulation Mapping -- Polar/Grid Coordinate Mapping -- Advanced Mapping Techniques -- Crime Scene Measurements in Court -- Ripped From The Headlines: Using Drones to Map Crime Scenes -- Investigator's Notebook: Elements of a Crime Scene Sketch -- Collecting, Handling, and Preserving Evidence -- Case In Point: Large Crime Scenes -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 5.Physical Evidence -- Physical Evidence -- Types of Physical Evidence -- Blood Evidence -- Presumptive Tests for Blood -- Blood Typing -- Characteristics of Blood Types -- Bloodstains as Evidence -- Bloodstain Pattern Analysis -- History of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis -- Bloodstain Mechanics -- Free-Falling Blood -- Impact Angles -- Area of Convergence -- Area of Origin -- Low-Velocity-Impact Bloodstains -- Medium-Velocity-Impact Bloodstains -- Projected Blood -- Cast-Off Blood -- Flow Patterns -- High-Velocity-Impact Bloodstains
Content: Note continued: Handling Blood Evidence -- Collection of Blood Evidence -- Liquid Blood -- Dried or Moist Bloodstain Recovery -- Handling Guidelines -- Investigator's Notebook: Collecting Bloodstained Samples -- Case In Point: A Telling Drop -- Other Biological Fluids -- Semen -- Ripped From The Headlines: Blood Evidence Used to Convict Boston Marathon Bomber -- Procedure for the Collection of Seminal Stains -- Saliva -- Procedure for the Collection of Evidential Forms of Saliva -- Other Types of Biological Evidence -- Urine -- Vomitus -- Vaginal Secretions -- Preservation of Dried Biological Evidence -- Introduction to Trace Evidence -- Probability/Product Rule -- Collection of Trace Evidence -- Case In Point: The Product Rule at Work -- Glass Evidence -- Fracture Analysis -- Collecting and Packaging Glass Evidence -- Ripped From The Headlines: FBI Performs Glass Fracture Analysis on Amtrak Train -- Paint Evidence -- Paint Evidence Analysis -- Soil Evidence
Content: Note continued: Collecting and Packaging Soil Evidence -- Hair and Fiber Evidence -- Ripped From The Headlines: Police Use Cat DNA to Convict -- Collection of Hair and Fiber Standards -- Collecting and Packaging Hair Evidence -- Fiber Evidence -- Collecting and Packaging Fiber Evidence -- Case In Point: Fiber Evidence in the Atlanta Murders -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 6.Suspect Identification -- Making Evidence Personal -- Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) -- Value of DNA Evidence -- Basics of DNA Typing -- Ripped From The Headlines: Using Ancestry Services for Law Enforcement Purposes -- Case In Point: DNA Solves an Early Case -- Handling DNA Evidence -- Sample Contamination -- Investigator's Notebook: Guidelines for Handling DNA-Bearing Evidence -- Case In Point: The Innocence Project -- Identification Through DNA -- Design of CODIS -- Limitations of Using CODIS -- Fingerprints -- Fingerprint Individuality
Content: Note continued: Fingerprint Immutability -- Classifying Prints -- Loop Patterns -- Whorl Patterns -- Arch Patterns -- Detecting Prints -- Patent Prints -- Plastic Prints -- Latent Prints -- Developing Prints -- Powders -- Chemical Development -- Investigator's Notebook: Handling Visible Prints -- Investigator's Notebook: Capturing Prints with Powders -- Developing Fingerprints from Shell Casings and Bomb Fragments -- Developing Fingerprints from Bodies -- Postmortem Fingerprint Impressions -- Fluorescence and Alternate Light Sources -- Handling and Preserving Prints -- Identifying Fingerprints -- Ripped From The Headlines: Selfie Identification -- Classification of Fingerprints -- Henry System -- National Crime Information Center-Fingerprint Classification (NCIC-FPC) -- Fingerprints and the Scientific Method -- Exhibit 6.1: Henry System of Classification -- Analysis -- Comparison -- Evaluation -- Verification -- Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems
Content: Note continued: Exhibit 6.2: The FBI Makes a Latent Fingerprint Misidentification -- Palm Prints -- Biometric Identification -- Retinal Scans -- Iris Scanning -- Ripped From The Headlines: Airline Group Unveils New "Iris Scan" Technology -- Composite Identifications -- Lineups -- Case In Point: United States v. Wade, 1967 -- Investigator's Notebook: Crucial Factors in Lineup Identification -- Identifying the Deceased -- Ripped From The Headlines: Identification of Missing in Action Personnel -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Case -- 7.Interviewing and Interrogation -- Introduction -- The Interview -- Interview Techniques -- Planning and Preparing the Interview -- Establish Rapport -- Active Listening -- Asking Leading Questions -- Patience -- The Cognitive Interview -- Victim Interviews -- Interviewing Reluctant Witnesses -- Investigator's Notebook: Examples of Data Processing Questions -- Interviewing Children
Content: Note continued: Investigator's Notebook: Tips for Interviewing Children -- Ripped From The Headlines: Asking the Hard Questions -- The Interrogation -- Investigator's Notebook: Miranda Warnings -- Investigator's Notebook: Interrogation Tips -- Successful Interrogations -- Preparing for the Interrogation -- Setting and Environmental Factors -- Knowledge of Case Facts -- Familiarity with the Subject's Background -- Documenting Confessions -- Investigator's Notebook: Elements of a Plan for Documenting a Confession -- Distinguishing Between Interrogations and Interviews -- Developing Persuasive Themes and Arguments -- Building a Good Relationship -- Allowing Enough Time -- The Reid Technique -- Steps of the Reid Technique -- Step 1: Direct, Positive Confrontation -- Step 2: Theme Development -- Steps 3 and 4: Handling Denials & Overcoming Objections -- Step 5: Procurement and Retention of the Suspect's Attention -- Step 6: Handling the Suspect's Passive Mood
Content: Note continued: Step 7: Presenting an Alternative Question -- Step 8: Having the Suspect Relate Details of the Offense -- Step 9: Converting an Oral Confession Into a Written Confession -- Written Statements and Confessions -- Confession Law -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 8.Firearms Investigation -- Introduction to Firearms -- The Early History of the Examination of Firearms -- Case In Point: The Brownsville Shooting -- Modern Firearms Investigation -- Rifled Firearms -- Ripped From The Headlines: Mass Shooting in Las Vegas -- Handguns -- Pistols -- Revolvers -- Rifles -- Smoothbore Firearms -- The Firing Mechanism -- Ammunition -- Types of Bullets -- Propellants -- Primers -- Cartridge Cases -- Shot Shells -- Ballistics and Firearms Identification -- Examination of Weapons -- Examination of Bullets -- Caliber -- Case In Point: St. Valentine's Day Massacre -- Number of Lands and Grooves -- Rifling Twists
Content: Note continued: Land and Groove Width -- Bullet Comparisons -- Examination of Cartridges -- Examination Objectives -- Firearms Evidence Handling and Packaging -- Investigator's Notebook: Questions a Firearms Examiner Aims to Answer -- National Integrated Ballistics Information Network -- Integrated Ballistic Identification System -- Ripped From The Headlines: Mobile NIBIN -- Improved Technology -- Investigator's Notebook: NIBIN Hit Process -- Defining a "Hit" -- Success of NIBIN -- Investigative Tool or Evidence Analysis -- Ripped From The Headlines: NIBIN Statistics -- Ripped From The Headlines: Future Issues with Bullet Path Determination -- Bullet Path Determination -- Evaluating and Documenting Zones of Possibility -- Zone 1 -- Zone 2 -- Zone 3 -- Range-of-Fire Estimation from Powder and Pellet Patterns -- Legal Aspects -- Investigator's Notebook: Range-of-Fire Estimation -- Class Characteristics -- Cartridge Evidence -- Chain of Custody
Content: Note continued: Case In Point: Examination of the Weapon Used to Assassinate President Lincoln -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 9.Death Investigation -- Introduction to Death Investigation -- Challenges in the Investigation -- Homicide -- Suicide Versus Homicide -- Who Kills? -- Preliminary Investigation -- The Investigative Protocol -- The Investigative Team -- Investigator's Notebook: Protocol at the Scene of a Death -- Time of Death Determination -- Hypostasis/Postmortem Lividity/Livor Mortis -- Rigor Mortis -- Investigator's Notebook: Hypostasis/Postmortem Lividity/Livor Mortis -- Investigator's Notebook: Rigor Mortis -- Algor Mortis -- Investigator's Notebook: Algor Mortis -- Vitreous Draw -- Stomach Contents -- Evidence Suggesting a Change in the Victim's Normal Routine -- Appearance of the Eyes -- Decomposition -- Putrefaction -- Insect Activity -- Case In Point: Insects Can Tell a Story
Content: Note continued: Investigator's Notebook: Handling Insect Evidence -- Mummification -- Adipocere -- Taphonomy -- Antemortem Trauma -- Postmortem Trauma -- Perimortem Trauma -- Sharp Force Injuries -- Defensive Wounds -- Blunt-Force Injury -- Firearm Injuries -- Investigator's Notebook: Suicide Versus Homicide Sharp Injuries -- Contact Wounds -- Intermediate-Range Injury -- Distant-Range Injury -- Entrance and Exit Wounds -- Shotgun Wounds -- Shotgun Contact Wounds -- Investigator's Notebook: Suicide Versus Homicide Gunshot Wounds -- Close-Range Shotgun Wounds -- Distant Shotgun Wounds -- Direction of Fire -- Chemical Trauma Injuries -- Thermal Trauma Injuries -- Electrical Trauma Injuries -- Asphyxia-Related Deaths -- Drowning -- Manual Strangulation and Hanging -- Homicide, Suicide, or Accidental? -- Deaths Due to Drug Overdose -- Public Assistance in Death Investigations -- Forensic Pathology -- Autopsy -- Autopsy Interpretation -- The Autopsy Procedure
Content: Note continued: Recovering Human Remains -- Surface Recovery -- Investigator's Notebook: Processing the Burial Site -- Excavation Techniques -- Anthropological Considerations -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 10.Theft, Burglary, and Robbery -- Introduction -- Burglary -- Types of Burglary -- Entry Techniques -- Toolmarks and Other Impressions -- The Burglary Investigation -- Investigator's Notebook: Processing a Crime Scene in Which Toolmarks Are Apparent -- Investigator's Notebook: Processing a Crime Scene in Which Footprints Are Found -- Motor Vehicle Theft -- Investigator's Notebook: Checklist for Use in Vehicle Theft Cases -- Applicable Case Law -- Ownership -- Intent to Commit Theft -- Case In Point: Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus v. Goldberg et al., 1990 -- Case In Point: People v. Jaso, 1979 -- Case In Point: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania v. Muniem, 1973 -- Intent in the Case of Burglary -- Robbery -- Robbers -- Robberies
Content: Note continued: Street Robberies -- Residential Robberies (Home Invasions) -- Commercial Robberies -- Vehicle Robberies -- Modus Operandi -- Target Selection -- Attire or Disguise -- Method of Entry -- Words and Notes Employed -- Weapons Chosen and Used -- Type of Force or Intimidation Used -- Manner of the Loot Grab -- Departure Signature -- Method of Departure -- Investigator's Notebook: Goals of Gathering Information -- Processing the Robbery Crime Scene -- Robbery Checklist -- Investigator's Notebook: Examples of Trace Evidence to Look for in Vehicles -- Investigator's Notebook: Checklist for Processing the Scene of a Robbery -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 11.Assault Investigation -- Introduction -- Aggravated Assault -- Investigator's Notebook: Handling Aggravated Assault -- Triage of the Victim -- Rendering First Aid and Summoning Medical Assistance -- Preserving the Crime Scene -- Questioning the Victim and Witnesses
Content: Note continued: Case In Point: Medical Assistance Imperative -- Processing the Crime Scene -- Elements of Proof -- Types of Abuse -- Domestic Violence -- The Cycle of Domestic Violence -- Stage 1: Tension Building -- Stage 2: Battering -- Stage 3: Honeymoon -- Handling The Cycle of Violence -- Investigator's Notebook: Tips for Interviewing Victims of Domestic Violence -- Investigating Child Abuse -- Identifying Child Abuse -- Types of Injuries -- Bruises -- Eye Injuries -- Legal Justifications for the Use of Force -- Sexual Assault -- Elements of Sexual Assault -- Spousal Immunity -- Past Sexual Conduct -- Resistance -- Aggravated Sexual Assault -- Sexual Assault Investigation -- Considerations for Processing the Scene -- Case In Point: People v. Orenthal James Simpson -- Medical Attention and Examination of the Victim -- Investigator's Notebook: Basic Elements of a Sexual Assault Investigation -- Interviewing the Victim -- Initial Interview -- Follow-Up Interview
Content: Note continued: Investigator's Notebook: Elements Sought in the Interview of a Sexual Assault Victim -- Gathering Evidence -- Vaginal Secretions -- Semen -- Ripped From The Headlines: Using CLU Fluorescence to Detect Semen Stains -- Procedure for the Collection of Seminal Stains -- Preservation of Dried Biological Evidence -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 12.Drug Offenses -- Drug-Related Evidence in Criminal Investigation -- The Controlled Substances Act -- Drug Regulation -- Scheduling of Controlled Substances -- Schedule I -- Schedule II -- Schedule III -- Schedule IV -- Schedule V -- Introduction to Drug Classes -- Narcotics -- Heroin -- Methadone -- Codeine -- Hallucinogens -- Lysergic Acid Diethylamide -- Ripped From The Headlines: Bath Salts -- Phencyclidine -- Marijuana -- Ripped From The Headlines: Marijuana Legalization Issues -- Ripped From The Headlines: DEA Moves Quickly to Control Synthetic Pot -- Depressants
Content: Note continued: Investigator's Notebook: Treatment of a Clandestine Drug Lab -- Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) -- Investigator's Notebook: GHB Usage as a Predatory Drug -- Stimulants -- Amphetamines -- Cocaine -- History of Use -- Production -- Crack Cocaine -- Using Cocaine -- Self-Propelled Semi-Submersibles -- Steroids -- Ripped From The Headlines: What's Next? Drones? -- Club Drugs -- The Addict Myth -- Forensic Analysis of Controlled Substances -- Botanical Analysis -- Marijuana Analysis -- Chemical Analysis -- Screening Tests -- Investigator's Notebook: Important Precaution Regarding Drug Investigations -- Preparing Materials for Field Testing -- Confirmatory Tests -- Drug Investigations -- Clandestine Drug Laboratories -- Drug Prevention and Education -- Investigator's Notebook: Following Up on Informants' Tips -- Current and Future Drug Trends -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 13.Arson and Explosives Investigation
Content: Note continued: Investigation of Arson -- Arson Evidence -- Motives for Arson -- Ripped From The Headlines: Convicted Arsonist Commits Suicide in Court -- Case In Point: The Happy Land Social Club Fire -- Incendiary Evidence -- Collecting Evidence -- Investigator's Notebook: Processing the Arson Scene -- Explosions -- Investigating Explosions -- Categories of Explosives -- Dynamite -- Ammonium Nitrate/Fuel Oil -- Military Explosives -- Improvised Explosives -- Explosive Investigation -- Predetonation -- Postdetonation -- Ripped From The Headlines: Low-explosive IEDs Used for Domestic Terror and Mischief -- Investigator's Notebook: Responses to Predetonation Situations -- Scene Search -- Zones and Perimeters -- Investigator's Notebook: Microtaggant[™] by Microtrace -- Hot Zone -- Warm Zone -- Cold Zone -- Relevant Case Law -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Case -- 14.Computer Crime and Digital Evidence
Content: Note continued: Introduction to Computer Crimes and Digital Evidence -- Computer Investigations -- Criminal Use of Digital Equipment -- Computer Particularity and Probable Cause -- Warrant Particularity -- Computers and the First Amendment -- Conducting the Search and Seizure -- Investigator's Notebook: Computer Search Checklist -- The Investigation -- Investigator's Notebook: Golden Rules of Crime Scenes Involving Digital Evidence -- Computer Experts -- Determining What to Seize -- Case In Point: United States v. Henson -- The Search -- Electronic Evidence -- Storage Media -- Tablets, Cell Phones, and Digital Cameras -- Applicable Case Law -- Ripped From The Headlines: iPhone Yields Forensic Evidence in Trial of Dr. Conrad Murray -- Cell Phones and Global Positioning Systems -- Tracking Technology -- Ripped From The Headlines: Man Charged with Stalking Using GPS -- Social Media -- Identity Theft
Content: Note continued: Ripped From The Headlines: You Think Your Facebook Profile Is Private? -- Ripped From The Headlines: Hacked at 33,000 Feet -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 15.Terrorism and Homeland Security -- Introduction -- Ripped From The Headlines: JTTFs -- Terrorism -- Ripped From The Headlines: Lone Wolf Terrorism -- Ripped From The Headlines: The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism -- Weapons of Terrorism -- Chemical Weapons -- Ripped From The Headlines: Terror on the Subway -- Biological Weapons -- Technology as a Weapon -- Ripped From The Headlines: Anthrax via the Mail -- Domestic Improvised Explosive Devices -- Investigating Terrorism -- Gathering Intelligence -- Homeland Security -- Human Trafficking -- Investigator's Notebook: How Do I Identify Human Trafficking? -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 16.Underwater Investigation -- Underwater Crime Scene Response
Content: Note continued: Underwater Investigative Teams -- Why Is an Investigative Dive Team Necessary? -- Where Is Investigative Diving Used? -- Who Should Comprise the Team? -- Team Design -- Team Leader/Commander -- Line Tenders -- Divers -- Assembling, Equipping, and Training the Team -- Personnel Requirements and Training -- Processing and Documenting an Underwater Scene -- Documenting the Surface Crime Scene -- Documenting the Underwater Crime Scene -- Searching for and Marking Evidence -- Investigator's Notebook: FBI Joint Training -- Photographing in the Underwater Environment -- Underwater Equipment Considerations -- Shallow-Water Photography -- Submerged Photography -- Environmental Challenges -- Overcoming Environmental Challenges -- Evidence Recovery -- Case In Point: Underwater Documentation of a Bank Robbery -- Not Everything Is Submerged -- Investigator's Notebook: Suggestions for Adapting to Underwater Environmental Issues
Content: Note continued: Investigator's Notebook: Submerged Weapon Handling Tip -- Underwater Investigation Safety -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 17.Defense Lawyers, Prosecutors, and Investigators -- The Defense -- Defensive Burden and Affirmative Defenses -- Defense Strategies -- Impeaching Evidence -- Impeaching the Police -- Confusion and Delay -- Suppression Hearings -- The Prosecution -- Jurisdiction -- Venue -- In-Court Identification -- Elements of the Offense -- Investigator's Notebook: Establishing Courtroom Identification -- Investigators and Trials -- Testimonial Devices to Avoid the Truth -- Denial -- Scapegoating -- Aiming for Error-Free Investigations -- Ethical Testimony -- Preparing for Trial -- Investigator's Notebook: Checklist for Testimony Preparation -- Expected Courtroom Demeanor -- Prosecution Summary -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 18.Expert Testimony -- Expert Witnesses -- Expert Witnesses: A Brief History
Content: Note continued: The Feudal Era -- Case In Point: Truth by Ordeal -- The Inquisition -- Experts and the Common Law -- Contemporary Expert Witnesses -- Who Is a Scientific Expert? -- Case In Point: Questionable Experts of the Past -- Exhibit 18.1: Federal Rule of Evidence 702 -- The Police Expert in Criminal Trials -- Qualifying an Expert Witness -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases.
Description: xxiii, 441 pages ; 28 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1.Introduction to Criminal Investigation -- What Is Criminal Investigation? -- Early History -- China, 12th Century -- England, 13th Century -- London, 1829 -- Law Enforcement Developments in England and in the United States -- London -- Chicago -- Case In Point: Tenacity -- Case In Point: Jack the Ripper -- New York City -- The Birth of Forensic Investigation -- Forensic Investigation in the United States -- The Growth of Forensic Science -- Development of Crime Laboratories -- Advancing Forensic Science -- Ripped From The Headlines: Defunding Forensic Science Improvement -- Fundamentals of Forensic Science -- Parsimony -- Specification -- Scientific Method -- Observation -- Recording -- Taxonomy -- Analysis -- Case In Point: The Scientific Method at Work -- Hypothesis -- Theory -- Inductive Reasoning -- Deductive Reasoning -- Criminal Investigation and the Scientific Method -- Importance of Forensic Evidence; Note continued: Exhibit 1.1: The Fifth and Sixth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution -- Objectives of an Investigation -- Investigator's Notebook: Definition of a Successful Investigation -- Investigator's Role -- Selecting Investigators -- Ripped From The Headlines What Does It Take to Become a Police Officer? -- The Legal Team -- Exhibit 1.2: The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution -- Admissibility of Evidence -- Investigator's Notebook: Proper In-Court Admission of Evidence -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 2.The Laws of Search and Seizure -- The U.S. Constitution and Due Process -- Exhibit 2.1: The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution -- The Fourth Amendment -- Expectation of Privacy -- Ripped From The Headlines: Police Chief Says Housing Authority Is to Blame for Search Confusion -- The Fifth Amendment -- The Sixth Amendment -- Case In Point: Pennsylvania v. Muniz, 1990 -- The Exclusionary Rule -- History -- Exceptions; Note continued: Case In Point: Mapp v. Ohio, 1961 -- The Inevitable Discovery Exception -- The Good Faith Exception -- Case In Point: Nix v. Williams, 1984 -- Investigator's Notebook: Warrant Procedures -- Search Warrants -- Exhibit 2.2: Search Warrant -- Warrantless Searches Based on Probable Cause -- Search Incident to Arrest -- Case In Point: Chime) v. California, 1967 -- Case In Point: United States v. Ross, 1982 -- Warrantless Searches Based on Reasonableness -- Consent Searches -- Exhibit 2.3: Example of a Consent Search Form -- Case In Point: Florida v. Enio Jimeno, 1991 -- Emergency Searches -- Exigent Circumstances Exception -- Investigator's Notebook: Requirements for Plain-View Searches -- Plain-View Searches -- Open-Field Exception -- Case In Point: Oliver v. United States, 1984 -- Vehicle Inventories -- Stop and Frisk -- Investigator's Notebook: Frisk Criteria -- Police Roadblocks and Sobriety Checkpoints -- Drug Interdiction Checkpoints -- Conclusion; Note continued: Questions for Review -- Reference -- Key Legal Cases -- 3.Managing Criminal Investigations and Cultivating Sources of Information -- Managing the Criminal Investigation -- Preliminary Investigation -- Investigator's Notebook: Crucial Elements of the Preliminary Investigation -- Solvability Factors -- Crime Scene Processing During the Preliminary Investigation -- Conviction Is the Objective -- Advantages of Managing Criminal Investigations -- Incident Command System -- National Incident Management System -- The Follow-Up Investigation -- The Interview -- The Search and the Arrest -- Preparing for Trial -- Sources of Information -- Community Policing and Criminal Investigation -- Eyewitnesses and Victims -- Informants -- Informants with an Agenda -- Investigator's Notebook: Working with Witnesses and Victims -- Cultivating Informants -- Informant Reliability -- Ripped From The Headlines: Trouble with Using Police Informants in the U.S.; Note continued: Case In Point: Draper v. United States, 1959 -- Case In Point: Spinelli v. United States, 1969 -- Surveillance -- Case In Point: Illinois v. Gates, 1983 -- Investigator's Notebook: Multivehicle Surveillance -- Investigator's Notebook: Essential Considerations When Planning Surveillance -- Legal Trends in Surveillance -- Ripped From The Headlines: Drone Use in Police Surveillance -- Case In Point: Katz v. United States, 1967 -- Case In Point: On Lee v. United States, 1952 -- Modus Operandi -- Case In Point: Rooftop Slaying -- Crime Mapping -- Interviewing -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 4.The Crime Scene -- Introduction to Crime Scenes -- First Response -- Exhibit 4.1: The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution -- Investigator's Notebook: Dos and Don'ts for Dealing with the Media -- Investigator's Notebook: Media Checklist -- Methodical Approach to Crime Scene Processing -- Documenting the Crime Scene; Note continued: Documentation/Reports -- Taking Notes -- Use of Notes -- Investigator's Notebook: Elements of Field Notes -- Investigator's Notebook: Field Notes Best Practices -- Conducting a Preliminary Scene Survey -- Ripped From The Headlines: Civilianizing Crime Scene Duties -- Recording the Crime Scene -- Crime Scene Photography -- Photographic Ranges and Perspectives -- Overall Photographs -- Midrange/Evidence-Establishing Photographs -- Close-Up/Comparison/Examination Photographs -- Proper Use of Forensic Scales -- Photo Logs -- Order of Taking Photographs -- Guidelines for Crime Scene Photography -- Crime Scene Videography -- Guidelines for Digital Video Recording a Crime Scene -- Searching the Crime Scene -- Swath Size -- Types of Crime Scene Search Patterns -- Lane/Strip Search -- Line Search -- Grid Search -- Zone Search -- Circle/Spiral Search -- Sketching and Mapping the Scene -- Sketching -- Crime Scene Mapping -- Baseline Mapping; Note continued: Rectangular Coordinate Mapping -- Triangulation Mapping -- Polar/Grid Coordinate Mapping -- Advanced Mapping Techniques -- Crime Scene Measurements in Court -- Ripped From The Headlines: Using Drones to Map Crime Scenes -- Investigator's Notebook: Elements of a Crime Scene Sketch -- Collecting, Handling, and Preserving Evidence -- Case In Point: Large Crime Scenes -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 5.Physical Evidence -- Physical Evidence -- Types of Physical Evidence -- Blood Evidence -- Presumptive Tests for Blood -- Blood Typing -- Characteristics of Blood Types -- Bloodstains as Evidence -- Bloodstain Pattern Analysis -- History of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis -- Bloodstain Mechanics -- Free-Falling Blood -- Impact Angles -- Area of Convergence -- Area of Origin -- Low-Velocity-Impact Bloodstains -- Medium-Velocity-Impact Bloodstains -- Projected Blood -- Cast-Off Blood -- Flow Patterns -- High-Velocity-Impact Bloodstains; Note continued: Handling Blood Evidence -- Collection of Blood Evidence -- Liquid Blood -- Dried or Moist Bloodstain Recovery -- Handling Guidelines -- Investigator's Notebook: Collecting Bloodstained Samples -- Case In Point: A Telling Drop -- Other Biological Fluids -- Semen -- Ripped From The Headlines: Blood Evidence Used to Convict Boston Marathon Bomber -- Procedure for the Collection of Seminal Stains -- Saliva -- Procedure for the Collection of Evidential Forms of Saliva -- Other Types of Biological Evidence -- Urine -- Vomitus -- Vaginal Secretions -- Preservation of Dried Biological Evidence -- Introduction to Trace Evidence -- Probability/Product Rule -- Collection of Trace Evidence -- Case In Point: The Product Rule at Work -- Glass Evidence -- Fracture Analysis -- Collecting and Packaging Glass Evidence -- Ripped From The Headlines: FBI Performs Glass Fracture Analysis on Amtrak Train -- Paint Evidence -- Paint Evidence Analysis -- Soil Evidence; Note continued: Collecting and Packaging Soil Evidence -- Hair and Fiber Evidence -- Ripped From The Headlines: Police Use Cat DNA to Convict -- Collection of Hair and Fiber Standards -- Collecting and Packaging Hair Evidence -- Fiber Evidence -- Collecting and Packaging Fiber Evidence -- Case In Point: Fiber Evidence in the Atlanta Murders -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 6.Suspect Identification -- Making Evidence Personal -- Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) -- Value of DNA Evidence -- Basics of DNA Typing -- Ripped From The Headlines: Using Ancestry Services for Law Enforcement Purposes -- Case In Point: DNA Solves an Early Case -- Handling DNA Evidence -- Sample Contamination -- Investigator's Notebook: Guidelines for Handling DNA-Bearing Evidence -- Case In Point: The Innocence Project -- Identification Through DNA -- Design of CODIS -- Limitations of Using CODIS -- Fingerprints -- Fingerprint Individuality; Note continued: Fingerprint Immutability -- Classifying Prints -- Loop Patterns -- Whorl Patterns -- Arch Patterns -- Detecting Prints -- Patent Prints -- Plastic Prints -- Latent Prints -- Developing Prints -- Powders -- Chemical Development -- Investigator's Notebook: Handling Visible Prints -- Investigator's Notebook: Capturing Prints with Powders -- Developing Fingerprints from Shell Casings and Bomb Fragments -- Developing Fingerprints from Bodies -- Postmortem Fingerprint Impressions -- Fluorescence and Alternate Light Sources -- Handling and Preserving Prints -- Identifying Fingerprints -- Ripped From The Headlines: Selfie Identification -- Classification of Fingerprints -- Henry System -- National Crime Information Center-Fingerprint Classification (NCIC-FPC) -- Fingerprints and the Scientific Method -- Exhibit 6.1: Henry System of Classification -- Analysis -- Comparison -- Evaluation -- Verification -- Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems; Note continued: Exhibit 6.2: The FBI Makes a Latent Fingerprint Misidentification -- Palm Prints -- Biometric Identification -- Retinal Scans -- Iris Scanning -- Ripped From The Headlines: Airline Group Unveils New "Iris Scan" Technology -- Composite Identifications -- Lineups -- Case In Point: United States v. Wade, 1967 -- Investigator's Notebook: Crucial Factors in Lineup Identification -- Identifying the Deceased -- Ripped From The Headlines: Identification of Missing in Action Personnel -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Case -- 7.Interviewing and Interrogation -- Introduction -- The Interview -- Interview Techniques -- Planning and Preparing the Interview -- Establish Rapport -- Active Listening -- Asking Leading Questions -- Patience -- The Cognitive Interview -- Victim Interviews -- Interviewing Reluctant Witnesses -- Investigator's Notebook: Examples of Data Processing Questions -- Interviewing Children; Note continued: Investigator's Notebook: Tips for Interviewing Children -- Ripped From The Headlines: Asking the Hard Questions -- The Interrogation -- Investigator's Notebook: Miranda Warnings -- Investigator's Notebook: Interrogation Tips -- Successful Interrogations -- Preparing for the Interrogation -- Setting and Environmental Factors -- Knowledge of Case Facts -- Familiarity with the Subject's Background -- Documenting Confessions -- Investigator's Notebook: Elements of a Plan for Documenting a Confession -- Distinguishing Between Interrogations and Interviews -- Developing Persuasive Themes and Arguments -- Building a Good Relationship -- Allowing Enough Time -- The Reid Technique -- Steps of the Reid Technique -- Step 1: Direct, Positive Confrontation -- Step 2: Theme Development -- Steps 3 and 4: Handling Denials & Overcoming Objections -- Step 5: Procurement and Retention of the Suspect's Attention -- Step 6: Handling the Suspect's Passive Mood; Note continued: Step 7: Presenting an Alternative Question -- Step 8: Having the Suspect Relate Details of the Offense -- Step 9: Converting an Oral Confession Into a Written Confession -- Written Statements and Confessions -- Confession Law -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 8.Firearms Investigation -- Introduction to Firearms -- The Early History of the Examination of Firearms -- Case In Point: The Brownsville Shooting -- Modern Firearms Investigation -- Rifled Firearms -- Ripped From The Headlines: Mass Shooting in Las Vegas -- Handguns -- Pistols -- Revolvers -- Rifles -- Smoothbore Firearms -- The Firing Mechanism -- Ammunition -- Types of Bullets -- Propellants -- Primers -- Cartridge Cases -- Shot Shells -- Ballistics and Firearms Identification -- Examination of Weapons -- Examination of Bullets -- Caliber -- Case In Point: St. Valentine's Day Massacre -- Number of Lands and Grooves -- Rifling Twists; Note continued: Land and Groove Width -- Bullet Comparisons -- Examination of Cartridges -- Examination Objectives -- Firearms Evidence Handling and Packaging -- Investigator's Notebook: Questions a Firearms Examiner Aims to Answer -- National Integrated Ballistics Information Network -- Integrated Ballistic Identification System -- Ripped From The Headlines: Mobile NIBIN -- Improved Technology -- Investigator's Notebook: NIBIN Hit Process -- Defining a "Hit" -- Success of NIBIN -- Investigative Tool or Evidence Analysis -- Ripped From The Headlines: NIBIN Statistics -- Ripped From The Headlines: Future Issues with Bullet Path Determination -- Bullet Path Determination -- Evaluating and Documenting Zones of Possibility -- Zone 1 -- Zone 2 -- Zone 3 -- Range-of-Fire Estimation from Powder and Pellet Patterns -- Legal Aspects -- Investigator's Notebook: Range-of-Fire Estimation -- Class Characteristics -- Cartridge Evidence -- Chain of Custody; Note continued: Case In Point: Examination of the Weapon Used to Assassinate President Lincoln -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 9.Death Investigation -- Introduction to Death Investigation -- Challenges in the Investigation -- Homicide -- Suicide Versus Homicide -- Who Kills? -- Preliminary Investigation -- The Investigative Protocol -- The Investigative Team -- Investigator's Notebook: Protocol at the Scene of a Death -- Time of Death Determination -- Hypostasis/Postmortem Lividity/Livor Mortis -- Rigor Mortis -- Investigator's Notebook: Hypostasis/Postmortem Lividity/Livor Mortis -- Investigator's Notebook: Rigor Mortis -- Algor Mortis -- Investigator's Notebook: Algor Mortis -- Vitreous Draw -- Stomach Contents -- Evidence Suggesting a Change in the Victim's Normal Routine -- Appearance of the Eyes -- Decomposition -- Putrefaction -- Insect Activity -- Case In Point: Insects Can Tell a Story; Note continued: Investigator's Notebook: Handling Insect Evidence -- Mummification -- Adipocere -- Taphonomy -- Antemortem Trauma -- Postmortem Trauma -- Perimortem Trauma -- Sharp Force Injuries -- Defensive Wounds -- Blunt-Force Injury -- Firearm Injuries -- Investigator's Notebook: Suicide Versus Homicide Sharp Injuries -- Contact Wounds -- Intermediate-Range Injury -- Distant-Range Injury -- Entrance and Exit Wounds -- Shotgun Wounds -- Shotgun Contact Wounds -- Investigator's Notebook: Suicide Versus Homicide Gunshot Wounds -- Close-Range Shotgun Wounds -- Distant Shotgun Wounds -- Direction of Fire -- Chemical Trauma Injuries -- Thermal Trauma Injuries -- Electrical Trauma Injuries -- Asphyxia-Related Deaths -- Drowning -- Manual Strangulation and Hanging -- Homicide, Suicide, or Accidental? -- Deaths Due to Drug Overdose -- Public Assistance in Death Investigations -- Forensic Pathology -- Autopsy -- Autopsy Interpretation -- The Autopsy Procedure; Note continued: Recovering Human Remains -- Surface Recovery -- Investigator's Notebook: Processing the Burial Site -- Excavation Techniques -- Anthropological Considerations -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 10.Theft, Burglary, and Robbery -- Introduction -- Burglary -- Types of Burglary -- Entry Techniques -- Toolmarks and Other Impressions -- The Burglary Investigation -- Investigator's Notebook: Processing a Crime Scene in Which Toolmarks Are Apparent -- Investigator's Notebook: Processing a Crime Scene in Which Footprints Are Found -- Motor Vehicle Theft -- Investigator's Notebook: Checklist for Use in Vehicle Theft Cases -- Applicable Case Law -- Ownership -- Intent to Commit Theft -- Case In Point: Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus v. Goldberg et al., 1990 -- Case In Point: People v. Jaso, 1979 -- Case In Point: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania v. Muniem, 1973 -- Intent in the Case of Burglary -- Robbery -- Robbers -- Robberies; Note continued: Street Robberies -- Residential Robberies (Home Invasions) -- Commercial Robberies -- Vehicle Robberies -- Modus Operandi -- Target Selection -- Attire or Disguise -- Method of Entry -- Words and Notes Employed -- Weapons Chosen and Used -- Type of Force or Intimidation Used -- Manner of the Loot Grab -- Departure Signature -- Method of Departure -- Investigator's Notebook: Goals of Gathering Information -- Processing the Robbery Crime Scene -- Robbery Checklist -- Investigator's Notebook: Examples of Trace Evidence to Look for in Vehicles -- Investigator's Notebook: Checklist for Processing the Scene of a Robbery -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 11.Assault Investigation -- Introduction -- Aggravated Assault -- Investigator's Notebook: Handling Aggravated Assault -- Triage of the Victim -- Rendering First Aid and Summoning Medical Assistance -- Preserving the Crime Scene -- Questioning the Victim and Witnesses; Note continued: Case In Point: Medical Assistance Imperative -- Processing the Crime Scene -- Elements of Proof -- Types of Abuse -- Domestic Violence -- The Cycle of Domestic Violence -- Stage 1: Tension Building -- Stage 2: Battering -- Stage 3: Honeymoon -- Handling The Cycle of Violence -- Investigator's Notebook: Tips for Interviewing Victims of Domestic Violence -- Investigating Child Abuse -- Identifying Child Abuse -- Types of Injuries -- Bruises -- Eye Injuries -- Legal Justifications for the Use of Force -- Sexual Assault -- Elements of Sexual Assault -- Spousal Immunity -- Past Sexual Conduct -- Resistance -- Aggravated Sexual Assault -- Sexual Assault Investigation -- Considerations for Processing the Scene -- Case In Point: People v. Orenthal James Simpson -- Medical Attention and Examination of the Victim -- Investigator's Notebook: Basic Elements of a Sexual Assault Investigation -- Interviewing the Victim -- Initial Interview -- Follow-Up Interview; Note continued: Investigator's Notebook: Elements Sought in the Interview of a Sexual Assault Victim -- Gathering Evidence -- Vaginal Secretions -- Semen -- Ripped From The Headlines: Using CLU Fluorescence to Detect Semen Stains -- Procedure for the Collection of Seminal Stains -- Preservation of Dried Biological Evidence -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 12.Drug Offenses -- Drug-Related Evidence in Criminal Investigation -- The Controlled Substances Act -- Drug Regulation -- Scheduling of Controlled Substances -- Schedule I -- Schedule II -- Schedule III -- Schedule IV -- Schedule V -- Introduction to Drug Classes -- Narcotics -- Heroin -- Methadone -- Codeine -- Hallucinogens -- Lysergic Acid Diethylamide -- Ripped From The Headlines: Bath Salts -- Phencyclidine -- Marijuana -- Ripped From The Headlines: Marijuana Legalization Issues -- Ripped From The Headlines: DEA Moves Quickly to Control Synthetic Pot -- Depressants; Note continued: Investigator's Notebook: Treatment of a Clandestine Drug Lab -- Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) -- Investigator's Notebook: GHB Usage as a Predatory Drug -- Stimulants -- Amphetamines -- Cocaine -- History of Use -- Production -- Crack Cocaine -- Using Cocaine -- Self-Propelled Semi-Submersibles -- Steroids -- Ripped From The Headlines: What's Next? Drones? -- Club Drugs -- The Addict Myth -- Forensic Analysis of Controlled Substances -- Botanical Analysis -- Marijuana Analysis -- Chemical Analysis -- Screening Tests -- Investigator's Notebook: Important Precaution Regarding Drug Investigations -- Preparing Materials for Field Testing -- Confirmatory Tests -- Drug Investigations -- Clandestine Drug Laboratories -- Drug Prevention and Education -- Investigator's Notebook: Following Up on Informants' Tips -- Current and Future Drug Trends -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 13.Arson and Explosives Investigation; Note continued: Investigation of Arson -- Arson Evidence -- Motives for Arson -- Ripped From The Headlines: Convicted Arsonist Commits Suicide in Court -- Case In Point: The Happy Land Social Club Fire -- Incendiary Evidence -- Collecting Evidence -- Investigator's Notebook: Processing the Arson Scene -- Explosions -- Investigating Explosions -- Categories of Explosives -- Dynamite -- Ammonium Nitrate/Fuel Oil -- Military Explosives -- Improvised Explosives -- Explosive Investigation -- Predetonation -- Postdetonation -- Ripped From The Headlines: Low-explosive IEDs Used for Domestic Terror and Mischief -- Investigator's Notebook: Responses to Predetonation Situations -- Scene Search -- Zones and Perimeters -- Investigator's Notebook: Microtaggant[™] by Microtrace -- Hot Zone -- Warm Zone -- Cold Zone -- Relevant Case Law -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Case -- 14.Computer Crime and Digital Evidence; Note continued: Introduction to Computer Crimes and Digital Evidence -- Computer Investigations -- Criminal Use of Digital Equipment -- Computer Particularity and Probable Cause -- Warrant Particularity -- Computers and the First Amendment -- Conducting the Search and Seizure -- Investigator's Notebook: Computer Search Checklist -- The Investigation -- Investigator's Notebook: Golden Rules of Crime Scenes Involving Digital Evidence -- Computer Experts -- Determining What to Seize -- Case In Point: United States v. Henson -- The Search -- Electronic Evidence -- Storage Media -- Tablets, Cell Phones, and Digital Cameras -- Applicable Case Law -- Ripped From The Headlines: iPhone Yields Forensic Evidence in Trial of Dr. Conrad Murray -- Cell Phones and Global Positioning Systems -- Tracking Technology -- Ripped From The Headlines: Man Charged with Stalking Using GPS -- Social Media -- Identity Theft; Note continued: Ripped From The Headlines: You Think Your Facebook Profile Is Private? -- Ripped From The Headlines: Hacked at 33,000 Feet -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases -- 15.Terrorism and Homeland Security -- Introduction -- Ripped From The Headlines: JTTFs -- Terrorism -- Ripped From The Headlines: Lone Wolf Terrorism -- Ripped From The Headlines: The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism -- Weapons of Terrorism -- Chemical Weapons -- Ripped From The Headlines: Terror on the Subway -- Biological Weapons -- Technology as a Weapon -- Ripped From The Headlines: Anthrax via the Mail -- Domestic Improvised Explosive Devices -- Investigating Terrorism -- Gathering Intelligence -- Homeland Security -- Human Trafficking -- Investigator's Notebook: How Do I Identify Human Trafficking? -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 16.Underwater Investigation -- Underwater Crime Scene Response; Note continued: Underwater Investigative Teams -- Why Is an Investigative Dive Team Necessary? -- Where Is Investigative Diving Used? -- Who Should Comprise the Team? -- Team Design -- Team Leader/Commander -- Line Tenders -- Divers -- Assembling, Equipping, and Training the Team -- Personnel Requirements and Training -- Processing and Documenting an Underwater Scene -- Documenting the Surface Crime Scene -- Documenting the Underwater Crime Scene -- Searching for and Marking Evidence -- Investigator's Notebook: FBI Joint Training -- Photographing in the Underwater Environment -- Underwater Equipment Considerations -- Shallow-Water Photography -- Submerged Photography -- Environmental Challenges -- Overcoming Environmental Challenges -- Evidence Recovery -- Case In Point: Underwater Documentation of a Bank Robbery -- Not Everything Is Submerged -- Investigator's Notebook: Suggestions for Adapting to Underwater Environmental Issues; Note continued: Investigator's Notebook: Submerged Weapon Handling Tip -- Underwater Investigation Safety -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 17.Defense Lawyers, Prosecutors, and Investigators -- The Defense -- Defensive Burden and Affirmative Defenses -- Defense Strategies -- Impeaching Evidence -- Impeaching the Police -- Confusion and Delay -- Suppression Hearings -- The Prosecution -- Jurisdiction -- Venue -- In-Court Identification -- Elements of the Offense -- Investigator's Notebook: Establishing Courtroom Identification -- Investigators and Trials -- Testimonial Devices to Avoid the Truth -- Denial -- Scapegoating -- Aiming for Error-Free Investigations -- Ethical Testimony -- Preparing for Trial -- Investigator's Notebook: Checklist for Testimony Preparation -- Expected Courtroom Demeanor -- Prosecution Summary -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- 18.Expert Testimony -- Expert Witnesses -- Expert Witnesses: A Brief History; Note continued: The Feudal Era -- Case In Point: Truth by Ordeal -- The Inquisition -- Experts and the Common Law -- Contemporary Expert Witnesses -- Who Is a Scientific Expert? -- Case In Point: Questionable Experts of the Past -- Exhibit 18.1: Federal Rule of Evidence 702 -- The Police Expert in Criminal Trials -- Qualifying an Expert Witness -- Conclusion -- Questions for Review -- References -- Key Legal Cases.
Responsibility: Aric W. Dutelle, Ronald F. Becker.
Year: 2019
Standard Numbers: LCCN: 2017047874
Class Descriptors: LC Class No.: HV8073; Dewey No.: 363.25
OCLC No.: 1010670152

Abstract:

From the crime scene to the courtroom, "Criminal Investigation, Fifth Edition" walks students through the entire investigative process and the roles involved, including police officers, investigators, forensic personnel, defense lawyers, and prosecutors. This integrated approach paints a realistic picture of how crimes are actually solved with fascinating real-world examples. The "Fifth Edition" incorporates modern investigative methods and procedures for multiple crime types, including homicide, assault, robbery, theft, burglary, arson, terrorism, cybercrime, and a new chapter dedicated to underwater investigations. New sections discussing digital evidence, including cell phones and GPS tracking technology, and social media keep students on the cutting-edge of investigative techniques and forensic science development. -- From publisher's description.
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